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A Practical Approach
Fire Resistance Performance
in Buildings

( Extended version of C J Walsh's contribution to the initial chapters of
CIB Report 269 - October 2001 )


1. Introduction

Many people, directly or indirectly involved in the processes of design, construction / de-construction, or management of buildings, view compliance with fire safety related legislation merely as an awkward problem to be overcome, with minimum cost and effort. Seldom is it understood that the fire safety objectives which underpin those provisions are limited in scope. In the case of current national legislation in the European Union, for example, the safety of a building's able-bodied occupants is the primary concern ; not only is safety of people with disabilities inadequately treated, but there is an absence of any coherent technical guidance to which building designers can make reference. Typically, also, the safety of firefighters and the protection of property are merely given token consideration. And even if comprehensive legislation existed at national level, it may not be effectively monitored or controlled on the ground, due to lack of political will, financial resources, or any number of other reasons.

The following text presents a practical introduction to fire resistance performance in buildings - in a format which is intended to appeal not only to experts, specialists, practitioners, regulators and controllers in the fire community but, additionally, to other disciplines working in the mainstream building sector.

Except where necessary, every attempt has been made in the text to ensure that terminology and references to legislative provisions are generic, and not specific to any individual country, its legal system, or national body of standards. For this reason, its contents constitute a common basis for discussing principles and defining criteria of fire resistance performance which are universally applicable and relevant at all stages in the life cycle of a building, whatever the nature or combination of materials and products used.


2. What is a Practical  Fire Engineering Approach

To examine, and think through, problems associated with aspects of fire safety and protection in buildings - in this case, fire resistance performance - and to base solutions on principles of reason, common sense, science, mainstream engineering, practicability and cost-effectiveness.

The benefits offered by such an approach include ........

  • the provision of better, and more reliable, fire safety and protection in buildings ;

  • more cost-effective safety and protection measures, and more options with regard to their choice and specification ;

  • better communication with other disciplines involved in the construction sector.

From the outset of this approach, it must be clearly understood that reality, or the realistic end condition, is a 'real' fire in a 'real' building which is occupied by 'real' people, a regular percentage of whom will be limited in the range of their abilities, i.e. disabled, at the time of any fire incident.

Continuous study and analysis, therefore, of accurate fire investigation reports should be a routine practice in all areas of the professional discipline of fire safety design / engineering.

3. Some Fire Related Issues in a Sustainable 'Built Environment'

Modern architecture has evolved dramatically since the early 1920's. Buildings are no longer designed as a series of rooms connected by a circulation route. Now instead, a large open space is a regular feature and, in many instances, spaces will be linked vertically and/or horizontally through a major extent of the building. Loadbearing construction, i.e. structure, is also differentiated from non-loadbearing construction, i.e. fabric, to a far greater degree. Fire safety design and engineering must keep pace with these developments.


Figure 1 German Pavilion at the 1929 World Exhibition in Barcelona.  Mies van der Rohe, Architect.
Part of the terrace showing the independence and separate treatment of the cruciform loadbearing columns and the non-loadbearing walls.

The traditional view of 'fire resistance' as being static, robust and passive must, therefore, not only be extended to consider a complementary relationship with 'active' fire protection measures , it must be stretched to embrace the concept of 'non-construction'   [ see definition of Sterile Area (Fire) in Appendix I to this text ].

With a growing body of environmental legislation, at European, regional and local levels throughout the European Union, fire safety design must begin to address some of the following issues, which relate directly to fire protection in buildings ........

  • requirements for far higher levels of reliable fire performance in order to reduce and control adverse impacts on the environment and human health caused by fire  ( see the more developed definition of Compartmentation in Appendix I ) ;

  • the specification of environment-friendly products, components and building assemblies, etc. ;

  • life cycle assessment / analysis / appraisal of specified fire protection measures.

Finally, an important new area of building research and development is Sustainable Construction - the response, in built form, to the concept of 'sustainable development'. This concept, i.e. 'development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs', has recently been incorporated in the primary legislation of the European Union ( 1997 Amsterdam Treaty ) . Fire safety design has an important contribution to make to this global goal - by helping to preserve the 'natural environment' and, as a core value, by adopting a 'person-centred' approach to fire safety in the 'built environment' and effectively protecting human health.

See the Fundamental Matrix of sustainability performance indicators.

See examples of completed Indicators , which are directly related to this text.

The purpose of Construction Related Sustainability Performance Indicators is to commence, in earnest, the practical task of implementing a sustainable approach to the future development and modification of the 'built environment'. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has made this a short term legal imperative for every Member State of the E.U.


4. Fire Safety Design

Aware of the limited safety objectives in building legislation, therefore, and following careful examination of the nature and precise location of a particular construction project, a competent person, i.e. a fire engineer, should start by identifying, in consultation with the client / developer and other members of the design team, a project specific range of 'indicated' fire safety objectives . This must come before the development of any fire safety strategy.

The following objectives cover a wide spectrum of concerns, and are suggested as a guide :

(i)  protection of the health and safety of all building users, including people with disabilities, visitors to the building who may be unfamiliar with its layout, and contractors or product / service suppliers temporarily engaged in work, or business transactions, on the premises ;
(ii) protection of property, including the building, its contents, and adjoining or adjacent properties, from loss or damage ;
(iii) protection of the health and safety of rescue teams and firefighters ;
(iv) the buildability of necessary re-construction after a fire ;
(v) protection of the 'natural environment' from adverse or harmful impacts ;
(vi) sustainability of the 'built environment' - including the proper selection and life cycle assessment ( see EN ISO 14040 ) of fire safety related materials, products, components, systems, etc., fixed, installed or incorporated in the building.

It is only after the objectives have been clearly stated, that a cost-effective fire safety strategy may be designed which will effectively answer the requirements of the client's brief and the project performance specification. Once completed, this strategy becomes the basis for a fire defence plan.

A fire defence plan elaborates, usually in the form of a manual containing drawings and text, the particular fire safety strategy which has been adopted for a specific building. Under no circumstances should a fire defence plan contain an incomplete strategy, or more than one strategy. See also ISO 6790 : ' Graphical symbols for fire protection plans '.

The style and presentation of a fire defence plan should be simple, clear, direct and precise ; and it should contain, at least, the following four sections ........

( a ) a statement of design intent, specifying the fire safety objectives to be attained ;
( b ) a listing of the fire protection related products, materials, assemblies and systems to be used in the building ;
( c ) proper substantiation of stated 'performance in use' of the items listed in ( b ) above ;
( d ) an explanation of the fire safety strategy, indicating how the various  listed items are to be used, their interaction with each other and with the building.

5. A New Language of Protection from Fire

With rising standards of public health protection, and the advent of larger and more complex building types, it has become clear that the old, prescriptive applications of fire safety design 'rules of thumb' are inadequate. However, to create the innovative concepts which are necessary to develop a more rational approach to fire safety design and engineering, standard terminology must be re-examined in order to clarify and make more immediate its meaning, e.g. ........

Fire Resistance : The inherent capability of a building assembly, or an element of construction, to resist the passage of heat, smoke and flame for a specified time during a fire.

'Real' people and their activities in buildings are very important. It is no longer the case that all building occupants must / should / can be evacuated in 21/2 minutes . In the different situations of hospitals and very large complex building types, for example, but also security establishments, certain research laboratories, and organizations committed to 'service quality', e.g. hotels - it is neither practicable, nor desirable, that a building be entirely evacuated at once. Building occupants must be able to move confidently, or be moved, to 'places of relative safety' , or they may have to be fully protected in place. Higher, more reliable levels of fire performance are demanded.


6. Structural Design for Fire

As our understanding of fire behaviour in 'real' buildings grows, greater attention is being paid to structural reliability, and the design of structural systems for performance in fire conditions ........

Structural Reliability :
(ISO 2394)
The ability of a structural system to fulfil its designpurpose, for some specified time, under the actual environmental conditions encountered in a building.

In addition, particular focus is being drawn to the complex relationship between structure and non-structural infill, or fabric, which typically in modern buildings is lightweight and non-loadbearing. Under fire conditions, this relationship becomes an intense interaction which impacts on the efficient fire performance, i.e. serviceability, of both.








Figure 2 The complex relationship between Structure and Fabric in a fire situation must be studied and researched. See a more developed sketch drawing.

In general terms, the reliability of a building structure, i.e. the loadbearing construction, is its ability to fulfil its architectural design purpose for some specified time under the actual environmental conditions encountered in the building. The fire performance of a whole structure, or part of it - the principal concern of this text - may be more precisely specified in engineering terms by reference to a defined set of limit states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the project's architectural and fire safety design requirements.

Those limit states may be divided into the following two categories :-

(a) ultimate limit states, which in structural design for ambient conditions correspond to maximum load-bearing capacity but, typically, in design for fire still correspond to the 'near-maximum' loadbearing capacity intended to avoid damage to laboratory furnaces caused by test specimen collapse - see definition of horizontal loadbearing element 'failure' in a sample test standard, e.g. BS 476 : Part 20 ( Clause 10.2.3 ) ........


and an interesting note in Appendix A, Paragraph 10, of the same standard concerning
loadbearing vertical elements ........

(b) serviceability limit states, which in 'ambient' design correspond to criteria governing function related use but, unfortunately, in design for fire are not yet properly recognized.


Ultimate limit states in fire engineering should instead be equally understood to mean, for example ........

  • rupture of critical sections of the structure caused by exceeding the ultimate strength (in some cases reduced by repeated loading) , or the ultimate deformation of the material ;

  • transformation of the structure into a mechanism (collapse) ;
  • loss of stability (buckling, etc.) .


Serviceability limit states in fire engineering, which are of more immediate and direct relevance to the protection of both human health and property, and necessary re-construction after a fire, would correspond to, for example ........

  • deformations which affect the efficient use, i.e. the fire performance, or appearance of structural or non-structural elements ;

  • local damage (including spalling and cracking) which reduces the durability of a structure or affects the efficiency or appearance of structural or non-structural elements.


To control fire serviceability limit states by design, therefore, it is necessary to use one or more constraints which describe acceptable deformations (+/-deflection, expansion, distortion, etc.) , accelerations, crack widths, spalling, etc. See some comments and questions.

Now refer back to the definition of 'fire resistance' in B.S. 476 : Part 20 ........

Fire Resistance : The ability of an element of building construction to withstand exposure to a standard temperature/time and pressure regime without loss of its fire separating function or loadbearing function or both for a given time.

This definition does not attempt to establish a relationship with 'real' fire behaviour in a 'real' building. A standard fire test, on the other hand, involving exposure of a test specimen or prototype to 'test fire' conditions, will give only a limited indication of :-

(i) the likely performance of a particular product, material or component when exposed to 'real fire' conditions ;
(ii) the suitability of a product, material or component for a particular end use.

Furthermore, there is a fundamental mismatch here between the concepts of fire separation ........

' ensuring that a fire, or any of its constituent parts, i.e. heat, smoke or flame,
cannot move or spread from Point A in a building to Point B '

and structural reliability in fire , which has already been defined ; both concepts are not even complementary. A single definition cannot handle this overload ; it makes no sense and, as a result, its meaning for the everyday practitioner in the building industry is obscured and lost.

7. Reliability of Fire Performance in Buildings

An issue which is becoming increasingly critical, in striving to rationalize, analyse (as distinct from assess), improve and optimize fire performance in buildings, is that of 'reliability. Can we confidently depend on an element of construction, an installed product, or a building system to perform as expected whenever a fire might occur - at any stage in the life cycle of that building Design, construction workmanship, maintenance, 'real' intended use, and an economically reasonable working life for the building, are important factors which must be considered by the fire safety designer as a member of a project's design and construction teams.

The following are some variables which influence performance reliability, and should be taken into account by a competent person in the detailed development of a fire safety strategy :

(i) Precision of fire test methods - is a fire performance rating of '60 minutes' in one test laboratory equivalent to a similar rating in another laboratory
(ii) Installation alterations on site. Have any changes been made to a product, as originally fire tested Have any of the fixing details been altered Have any changes been made on site in order to ensure a proper fit If assemblies do not fit, how have resulting larger gaps and clearances been handled by the building contractor
(iii) Workmanship - is it good, bad or ugly Has it been competently supervised, or not
(iv) Has there been any interference with an installed product - by other trades at later stages in the construction process
(v) Servicing and maintenance - will any be carried out, by somebody competent to do so
(vi) What information do you have about the management system, personnel, and reporting relationships in a building Are they efficient / competent / effective
(vii) Improper use and abuse by the building's occupants - for example, would you ever expect to find a situation like that shown below



Figure 3 'Reliability' of a Fire Resisting Doorset
  See more figures [ a ] and [ c ] .

8. Proper Substantiation of Fire 'Performance in Use'

Within the European Union, products, components, fittings, items of equipment, systems, etc., used in the construction of buildings must be shown to be 'fit for their intended use' , at the location and under the conditions in which they are to be used ........

This requirement is expressed in the Building Regulations for England and Wales, as Regulation 7 :-

Figure 4 Regulation 7 of the Building Regulations for England and Wales.


Appendix A of Approved Document B for England and Wales provides additional guidance with regard to the performance of fire protection related products, components, systems, etc. This information must be read as being related, and subordinate, to Regulation 7. Once the boundary of application of a Fire Test Report is exceeded, however, Appendix A is not clear what an 'Assessment' is, or who exactly is the 'competent person' to produce such documentation.

See some Technical Guidance Notes , which do provide answers.



Appendix I - Fire Resistance Performance in Buildings

Fire Safety & Protection in Buildings

(See Updated Vocabularies - October 2001)

Adaptability : The extent to which a building, or a building component, is designed when new, or capable of being easily modified at any later stage, to meet the changing living or working needs of the broad average of potential occupants, who may be disabled or able-bodied.

Assembly : An aggregation of components arranged together for a specific purpose.

Buffer Zone : The compartments and/or spaces immediately adjoining the fire compartment in a building.

Buildability :
The extent to which the design of a building facilitates ease of construction, subject to the overall requirements for the completed building.

Built Environment : Anywhere there is, or has been, an intrusion or intervention by a human being in the natural environment.

Compartmentation :

The division of a building into fire-tight compartments, by fire resisting elements of construction, in order ...

  • to contain an outbreak of fire ;
  • to prevent damage internally to other adjoining compartments and/or building spaces ;
  • to prevent harm externally to the 'natural environment' ;
  • to protect a compartment interior from external fire attack.

Component :
(ISO 1791)

A building product, formed as a distinct unit, having specified sizes in three dimensions.

The term component includes items of equipment, fixtures, fittings, and fitted furniture.

Construction Works :
(EU Directive 89/106/EEC)

Any building or civil engineering works.

Cool Flame : Flame produced by certain fuel substances, e.g. higher hydrocarbons, in an initial stage of ignition and during slow combustion at temperatures below 500oC.

Cool Smoke : Smoke, remote from the scene of a fire, which has cooled and is drifting at low levels.

Co-Ordinating Dimension :
(ISO 1791)
A dimension of co-ordinating space, which defines the relative positions of two or more components in an assembly, according to the characteristics of the components which are relevant to the assembly.

Cost - Effectiveness :
(Energy Charter
Treaty, 1994)
To achieve a defined objective at the lowest cost or to achieve the greatest benefit at a given cost.

Design Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)
A fire with specified exposure data intended for use in connection with structural fire design calculations.

A design fire may either be representative of the thermal exposure described by the standard time-temperature and time-pressure relationships in accordance with ISO 834, or some non-standard exposure intended to simulate particular fire exposure conditions.

Dimensional Co-Ordination :
(ISO 1791)
A convention on related sizes for the co-ordinating dimensions of building components and the buildings incorporating them, for their design, manufacture, assembly and/or installation.

Disabled People :

Those people, of all ages, who are unable to perform, independently and without aid, basic human tasks or functions because of physical, mental or psychological impairment, whether of a permanent or temporary nature.

This definition is derived from / based on the World Health Organization's definitions (1980) of 'impairment' and 'disability' only.

The term includes ........

  • wheelchair users ;
  • people who experience difficulty in walking, with or without aid, e.g. stick, crutch, calliper or walking frame ;
  • the elderly ( people over the age of 60 years ) ;
  • the very young ( people under the age of 5 years ) ;
  • pregnant women ;
  • people who suffer from arthritis ;
  • the visually impaired ;
  • the hearing impaired ;


  • people who panic in a fire situation or other emergency ;
  • people, including firefighters, who suffer incapacitation as a result of exposure, during a fire, to poisonous or toxic substances, and/or elevated temperatures.

Doorset :

A component consisting of a fixed part ( the door frame ) , one or more movable parts ( the door leaves ) , and their hardware, the function of which is to allow, or to prevent, access and egress.

A doorset may also include a door saddle / sill / threshold.

Element of Construction :
(ISO 1791)
A functional part of a building, constructed from building materials and/or building components.

Examples are foundation, floor, roof, wall, etc.

Energy Cycle :
(Energy Charter Treaty, 1994)
The entire energy chain, including activities related to prospecting for, exploration, production, conversion, storage, transport, distribution and consumption of the various forms of energy, and the treatment and disposal of wastes, as well as the decommissioning, cessation or closure of these activities, minimizing harmful environmental impacts.

Environmental Impact :
(Energy Charter Treaty, 1994)
Any effect caused by a given activity on the environment, including human health and safety, flora, fauna, soil, air, water, climate, landscape and historical monuments or other physical structures or the interactions among these factors ; it also includes effects on cultural heritage or socio-economic conditions resulting from alterations to those factors.

Evacuate a Fire Building : To withdraw, or cause to withdraw, all users from a fire building, in planned and orderly phased movements, to a place of safety.

Experimental Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)

A full or reduced scale fire with specified and controlled characteristics.

Fire Compartment : The compartment of fire origin.

Fire Defence Plan : A pre-determined and co-ordinated use of available human and material means in order to maintain an adequate level of fire safety and protection within a building and, in the event of an outbreak of fire, to ensure that it is brought speedily under control and extinguished.

Fire Defence Manual :

The elaboration, usually in the form of appropriate drawings, text, audio/visual aids and product information, of the particular fire safety strategy which has been adopted for a specific building. Under no circumstances should a fire defence manual contain an incomplete strategy, or more than one strategy.

Fire Draught : A current of air within a building, moving towards a fire, supplying oxygen for combustion.

Fire Protection : The use of building design, construction, services, systems, personnel and equipment in order to control and extinguish fire, and minimize its effects on people, property and the environment.

Fire Resistance : The inherent capability of a building assembly, or an element of construction, to resist the passage of heat, smoke and flame during a fire.

Fire Resisting Doorset / Shutter Assembly : A doorset / shutter assembly, suitably installed or mounted on site, the function of which is to resist the passage of heat, smoke and flame during a fire.

Fire Safety Design : The art and science of the design , supervision of related construction / de-construction, and maintenance of fire safety and protection in a sustainable 'built environment'.

Fire Safety Objectives : An expression of the fire safety design intent for a building, in the form of specific subordinate purposes, towards which the production of a fire defence plan is directed.

Some fire safety objectives may be requirements of legislation.

Fire Safety Strategy : A coherent and purposeful arrangement of fire protection and fire prevention measures which is developed in order to attain specified fire safety objectives.

Flashover : The transition from a localized fire to a fully developed fire within a building compartment or space.

Fully Developed Fire : The stage, in the development of a fire, during which all available fuel substances are involved.

Human Health : A state of physical, mental, psychological, social, cultural and economic wellbeing.

Life Cycle :
(EN ISO 14040)
Consecutive and interlinked stages of a product (and/or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation of natural resources to the final disposal.

Life Cycle Assessment :
(EN ISO 14040)
Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental impacts of a product (and/or service) system throughout its life cycle.

Penetrating Service : Any building service, e.g. cable, conduit, trunking, pipe, flue, duct or shaft, etc., which penetrates a fire resisting building assembly or element of construction.

Penetration Sealing Assembly : An assembly consisting of one or more penetrating services and their support construction, fire resisting damper assembly, penetration barrier and/or fire sealant, etc., the function of which is to restore the original fire resistance capability of a building assembly or an element of construction.

Performance :
(EU Directive 89/106/EEC)
Performance is a quantitative expression ( value, grade, class or level ) of the behaviour of a works, part of the works or product, for an action to which it is subject or which it generates under the intended service conditions ( for the works or part of the works ) or intended use conditions ( for products ) .

Place of Relative Safety : Any location beyond the buffer zone surrounding a fire compartment in a building.

Place of Safety : Any location beyond a perimeter which is 100 metres from the fire building or a distance of 10 times the height of such building, whichever is the greater.

Real Fire :
(ISO/TR 10158)
A fire which develops in a building and which is influenced by such factors as the type of building and its occupancy ( numbers, abilities and activity ) ;
the combustible content ( the fire load ) ;
the ventilation, geometry and thermal properties of the fire compartment or space ; the suppression systems in the building and the actions of the fire services.

A real fire is a complex phenomenon. In a structural fire design, therefore, idealized versions of real fires are employed.

Safety :
(ISO/IEC Guides 2 & 51)
Freedom from unacceptable risk of harm.

Shutter Assembly : An assembly consisting of one movable part ( a curtain of horizontal interlocking steel slats ) , and its hardware ( a suspension system, guide rails, etc. ) , the function of which is to allow, or to prevent, access and egress.

Size : The magnitude of a dimension in terms of a defined S.I. unit of measure, i.e. the metre.

Smoke : The visible suspension of solid and/or liquid particles in gases resulting from fire or pyrolysis.

Smoke Resistance : The inherent capability of a building assembly to resist the passage of smoke during a fire.

Sterile Area ( Fire ) : A building space of sufficient extent, or a compartment, which is designed to retain an exceptionally low level of fire risk and hazard during a fire - in order to resist and control the advance of heat, smoke and flame in that building.

Examples where sterile areas ( fire ) might be useful ........

  • in the main entrance lobby / space of a building ;
  • to create a fire separation between different spaces in an open plan building, or to sub-divide a very large open space.

Structural Reliability :
(ISO 2394)

The ability of a structural system to fulfil its design purpose, for some specified time, under the actual environmental conditions encountered in a building.

In structural fire design, the concern must be that the structure will fulfil its purpose, both during the fire - and for a minimum period afterwards during the 'cooling phase'.

Tolerance : The difference between permissible limits of size or between permissible limits of position.

Tolerance is an absolute value, without sign.

Wellbeing : A general feeling of health and happiness.

Work Size : The size, given with its permissible deviations, specified for manufacturing a component the actual size of which would lie within these deviations, under reference conditions.

Appendix II - Fire Resistance Performance in Buildings

Reference Documentation


International Standards

ISO 2394 : 1998

General principles on reliability for structures

ISO 5725 : 1986

Precision of test methods - Determination of repeatability and reproducibility for a standard test method by inter-laboratory tests.

ISO 6707-1 : 1989

Building and civil engineering - Vocabulary. Part 1 : General terms.

ISO 6707-2 : 1993

Building and civil engineering - Vocabulary. Part 2 : Contract terms.

ISO/TR 10158 : 1991

Principles and rationale underlying calculation methods in relation to fire resistance of structural elements.

EN ISO 14040 : 1997

Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and framework

International Treaties and Agreements

Energy Charter Treaty

Lisbon, Portugal ; December, 1994. Official Journal of the European Communities. OJ L 380 . Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. Luxembourg. 1994.

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development - Agenda 21

Adopted on 14th. June 1992, at the 19th. plenary meeting of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 3rd.- 14th. June, 1992.

UNFCCC - The Kyoto Protocol : 1997

Agreed at the 3rd. meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 3) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Kyoto, Japan. December, 1997. This Protocol sets legally binding targets for developed countries to limit emissions of an aggregate of six more greenhouse gases : CO2 , CH4 , N2O, PFC's , HFC's , and SF6 .

Publications and Reports

Agenda 21 on Sustainable Construction - CIB Publication 237

International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction ( CIB ) . Publication No. 237. The Netherlands. July, 1999.

An Investigation of Fire Door Closer Forces

Read, R.E.H. and Shipp, M.P. Building Research Establishment Report. HMSO, London, England. 1979.

European Charter on Sustainable Design & Construction

Walsh, C.J. - Sustainable Design International. In co-operation with the Commission of the European Union, and the International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction ( CIB ) . Adopted in Dublin, Ireland, on 6th November 1998.

Sustainable Development and the Future of Construction - CIB Report 225

International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation ( CIB ). Report No. 225. CIB Working Commission 82 : Futures Studies in Construction. The Netherlands. May, 1998.

Visibility Through Fire Smoke - Part 5 : Allowable Smoke Densities for Escape from Fire

Tadahisa, Jin. Report of Fire Institute of Japan, No. 42. 1976.

Rational  Fire  Safety  Engineering  Approach  to  Fire  Resistance  in  Buildings  -  CIB Report  269

International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction ( CIB ) . Report No. 269. CIB Working Commission 14 : Fire. The Netherlands. October, 2001.




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